Metro Rail Connectivity in Uttar Pradesh
India is one of the foremost emerging economic powers of the world. It is the self-resilient economy backed by skilled man power, natural resources, infrastructure, growing industrialization and a huge consumer base that are driving this growth. Uttar Pradesh is the most populated province and hence, the state is going through phenomenal growth in urbanization during the last few decades. This, together with rapid changes in socio-economic environment of the State, has played a crucial role in increasing motorized mobility in urban areas. With growing development in cities across the state, the enhanced traffic on the road has now become the cause of concern, as it is a combination of motorized and non-motorized vehicles like scooters, motor-cycles, buses, cars, cycles and rickshaws, resulting in fuel wastage, environmental pollution and increasing number of road accidents. This necessitates a policy shift to discourage private modes of transit and put in place an effective and flexible community transport system in order to develop policies. It will facilitate the integration of the three aspects of sustainability-economy, society and environment.
Metro Rail connectivity has already been introduced in some of the major cities of Uttar Pradesh, whereas, concrete plans are on the anvil for introducing this facility in other prominent cities.
Success of Metro Rail in Uttar Pradesh
The Yamuna Bank – NOIDA section of the Delhi Metro was dedicated to general public with effect from 13th November 2009. This opened a new chapter in the modernization of public transport system in Uttar Pradesh. NOIDA earned the distinction of becoming the first city of the state as well as the first National Capital Region (NCR) city to be connected to the Metro network. The length of this section is 13.1 kms and it has ten stations. (Source NOIDA)
Ghaziabad Development Authority has taken over the metro rail projects which will connect different parts of Ghaziabad to the Metro Rail Network of National Capital Region (NCR). The project is proposed to be completed in three phases.
As per the MOU signed between Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) and Ghaziabad Development Authority (GDA), land is being provided by GDA for station and station facilities, including parking.
The 2.57 kilometer long stretch from Anand Vihar to Vaishali section of the Delhi Metro was opened for the general public on July 14, 2011. It is the extension of the 6.26 kms long Yamuna Bank – Anand Vihar Metro corridor which is also called Line 4 (Blue Line). The section comprises of two stations namely Kaushambi and Vaishali. This stretch is expected to add more than 40,000 metro commuters into the system. (Source GDA)
This proposed Metro Rail starting from the City Centre Metro Station in Noida, would reach at Noida-Greater Noida Expressway in Greater Noida passing through Sector 32 via Sector 51,83,101, 143, 147,Knowledge park II ,Alpha, Delta to Knowledge park IV and would touch the famous Pari Chowk of Greater NOIDA. A part of the track will be elevated while the rest of it will be on the ground. The estimated total cost of the project is around Rs 5,000 crore, which would be borne by Noida Authority and Greater Noida Industrial Development Authority. This 29.707 Km long, new Metro line will have 22 stations en route. (Source Noida)
Lucknow, the capital of the state, has expanded manifolds with increased need for a smooth community transport network. Therefore, a Rapid Transit System is proposed for Lucknow also, which shall be built and operated by the Lucknow Metro Rail Corporation Limited (LMRC).
The proposed Lucknow Metro track would comprise of two corridors – a 22.994 Kms North-South Corridor and another 11.09 Kms East-West corridor, whereas, Gomti Nagar link will be stretched to 3.547 Kms, making the total length of the project to be 37.639 Kms.
Lucknow Development Authority has been nominated as nodal agency for executing the project with an estimated cost of Rs. 12,671 crore. (Source Housing Deptt.)
Major cities of importance from the viewpoint of tourism, education and industry, have been indentified by the state government for introducing Metro Rail system.
Now, the wait for a better, reliable and safer transport system is expected to be over soon for the people of Uttar Pradesh. Metro rail transit system will not only result in saving in travel time for commuters but will also help in reduction in travelling cost, atmospheric pollution and traffic accidents. Moreover, on a larger perspective, it would reduce fuel consumption, vehicle operating costs besides increasing the average speed and life cycle of road vehicles. This system will prove to be a crucial factor in accelerating the growth rate of Uttar Pradesh, which in turn improves the infrastructural facilities for setting up industrial, institutional, educational and residential projects in Uttar Pradesh.
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN UTTAR PRADESH
All over the world, Solid Waste Management (SWM) has occupied huge significance. SWM is an organized process of storage, collection, transportation, processing and disposal of solid refuse residuals in an engineered sanitary landfill. It is an integrated process comprising several collection methods, varied transportation equipments, storage, recovery mechanisms for recyclable material, reduction of waste volume and quantity by methods such as composting, waste-to-power and disposal in a designated engineered sanitary landfill.
Management of Solid Wastes is a growing concern to the general public at large, local authorities and business communities in cities across the country. The problem is aggravating in urban areas due to swift strides in population growth coupled by an economic boom that has marked a huge surge in consumption of goods leading to generation of wastes by leaps and bounds. Hence it becomes the need of the state of Uttar Pradesh to take plunge into managing the solid waste since its accumulation in open areas lead to multifarious problems such as:
- negative impact on the living conditions of human beings as well as the overall environment
- spread of communicable and non-communicable diseases among human beings and animals, thus affecting the welfare, livelihood and economic productivity
- contamination of soil, surface water, ground water and generation of toxic and green-house gases
- a breeding ground for insects and other vectors as well as human beings
- diminishing real estate and property value
- causes odour nuisance, reflects the unorganized nature of the community
Initiations taken by the State Government
Considering the importance of management of solid waste in various parts of the State, the Government is implementing SWM projects under Public Private Partnership (PPP) model in 26 cities. Under this model, a concessionaire shall operate the projects in these cities, the responsibilities of whom would include door-to-door collection of waste, primary storage, secondary collection, transfer, transportation, development of processing plant and landfill etc.
The private agency has to manage and maintain the project for a period of 30 years and also would have to shoulder the responsibilities of replacement and capacity enhancement etc. and has to make all related investments during the concession period. The tipping fees shall be paid to them by the concerned Nagar Nigam. All the projects shall be implemented under JNNRUM scheme of Government of India, which is a reforms-driven, fast-track, planned development of identified towns with focus on efficiency in urban infrastructure.
Cities where Solid Waste Management Projects are being implemented in Uttar Pradesh
|Kanpur, Lucknow, Agra, Varanasi, Allahabad, Meerut, Mathura, Moradabad, Gorakhpur, Aligarh, Jhansi, Muzaffarnagr, Mirzapur, Jaunpur, Sambhal, Etawah, Raibareilly, Badaun, Fatehpur, Ballia, Mainpuri, Barabanki, Kannauj, Ferozabad, Loni, Basti|
The purpose of adopting PPP in SWM projects in these cities is to impart more efficiency and cost effective services which may not be effectively provided by the existing infrastructure/manpower of the municipality.
The projects are under various stages of implementation. In 10 cities, door-to-door collection has been commenced, in 10 cities processing plant work is in progress whereas land has been acquired in 3 cities and land is being acquired in 3 cities.
The concentrated endeavor of the Govt. of U.P. bore fruitful results and in a near future, citizens of Uttar Pradesh can enjoy a cleaner, contamination-free environment. It will also boost confidence amongst prospective investors across the globe to step in here and set up their dream projects in the State.
Renewable Energy in Uttar Pradesh
Power is one of the most enabling infrastructure sector for any economy and supply of uninterrupted power is a critical parameter for the performance of industry and also is among the top most considerable factor for investors. Majority of power generated in India and especially in Uttar Pradesh is reliant on coal (thermal power). Coal prices and its availability have caused deficit in power in Uttar Pradesh. Hence, there is obvious need to develop alternate sources of energy.
Uttar Pradesh is rich in renewable energy recourses such as biomass, solar and bio-fuels, of which only biomass has been considerably exploited. Growth of renewable energy would definitely help the State in meeting out its energy requirement.
State’s Vision for the Renewable Energy sector is to –
- Facilitate sustainable generation of green power through renewable energy sources to increase the share of renewables in the overall power mix towards fulfillment of State’s RPO.
- Provide energy access to rural areas.
- Reduce excessive dependence on fossil fuels and conserve environment.
Recognising the need of developing alternate source of energy and also considering the growing importance of renewable energy, the Government has taken many proactive steps in order to boost this sector:
Some proactive Initiatives
- State policy for small hydro power plants declared
- State policies for biomass and solar power are under active consideration
- Mini grid solar power plant scheme introduced for the villages/hamlets having no or very poor access to electricity.
- Installation of solar power plants to operate 45 submersible pumps of Jal Nigam for drinking water is under way.
- Complaint Management System Software with IVRS facility on toll-free no. for quick redressal of complaints of installed systems is in place.
Present scenario and future prospects
Power generation – Uttar Pradesh has promising potential of Solar Energy and Biomass. The existing canal network and dam toes in the State too have potential of generating power through micro hydel power plants. The potential of power generation from wind energy is quite limited. In the 12th Five Year Plan, the power generation capacity addition from solar energy, small hydro projects on canal falls and biomass has been targeted as under –
- Solar Energy: Govt. of India has sanctioned, 5 grid connected solar power projects in Uttar Pradesh having a total capacity of 8 MW, to the private developers under the National Solar Mission.
- Small Hydro: Allotment of identified small hydro projects of a total capacity of 11 MW to the private developers under the small hydro policy of the State is in progress. These projects are expected to be completed by the year 2014.
- Biomass: The potential of the biomass resources has been estimated at about 3757 megawatt in the State. Power generation capacity of 1331.14 megawatt has been achieved in the private sector sugar mills, rice mills, paper mills and other industrial units, out of which 969.18 megawatt is bagasse based. U.P. is the leading state in the country in biomass power generation.
Rural electrification – Un-electrified villages/hamlets, which are difficult to be electrified by the power grid, are being electrified through renewable energy (solar home light and solar street light etc.) so as to connect these villages/hamlets to illuminated world. So far, 435 villages/hamlets have been covered. Besides, the un-electrified villages, a large number of hamlets are still unconnected with the power grid. Therefore, a mini grid solar power plant scheme has been introduced for the villages/hamlets which are deprived of electricity.
Solar Street Light – Solar street lights are being installed in the rural areas for providing community street lighting under the district plan with the provision of central and state subsidy. A total number of 42235 systems have already been installed. In addition to these systems, a total target of 33454 solar street lighting systems has been taken up in 2011-12.
Solar Pumps – Solar photovoltaic pumps have been installed for drinking water and also for irrigation with the provision of central and state subsidy. In addition to 608 solar pumps installed so far, a project of installation of solar power plants for operating 45 pumps of Jal Nigam has been taken up under central subsidy in 2011-12.
Solar Water Heater – Solar water heating systems of a total capacity 24 lakh liter per day have been installed for industrial and domestic purposes in the State. The total 11th Plan achievement is expected to be about 10.13 lakh liter capacity.
Aditya/Akshay Urja Shops – In order to create a state-wide network of sale and service for easy access to availability and service of new and renewable energy systems, 63 shops are operational in different districts which are named as Aditya or Akshya shops. It is proposed to extend the network and open such shops in all the blocks of the State by involving private entrepreneurs and NGOs.
Potential Regions for Renewable Energy
As per EAI report, the following are the potential sites for the installation of Solar Photovoltaics (PV) and Solar Concentrated solar power (CSP) plants along with details of average irradiation expected at each site:
Average Irradiation (Kwh/m2/day
Average Irradiation (Kwh/m2/day
With many projects underway and on anvil, Government of Uttar Pradesh offers huge opportunities to prospective investors to set up their Solar Plants in the State in Renewable Energy Sector.
BHADOHI renamed as Sant Ravi Das Nagar also known as ‘carpet city’ is a flourishing town situated in the eastern part of Uttar Pradesh with a population of around 15,54000 people. It is internationally known for the hand knotted and woolen carpets manufactured there. The town is located on Varanasi-Delhi railway line, about 70 km to the West of Varanasi-a city known for its religious importance. The town is well connected by road and rail to other parts of the country. Although carpets are manufactured in the entire area known as the ‘Mirjapur Bhadohi belt’ Bhadohi is the main trade centre. The carpet industry has played a big role in the economic development of the town.
While many Indian handicrafts succumbed to the challenges of technological modernization, the carpet industry-one of the urban handicrafts-has not only successfully withstood the onslaughts of technological development, competition from china and Pakistan and global recession as well but has flourished over the years. This is due to the adaptability that the industry has shown to new situations.
PROCESS OF CARPET MANUFACTURE
Carpet manufacturing involves a good deal of specialization. The whole organization opens up employment opportunities to a large number of workers, and represents a tightly knit nexus of interrelationships among the people engaged in the industry at different levels. The carpet manufactured in Bhadohi are not all woolen. The warp is made of cotton twisted thread and knots of from different parts of the country such as Jhansi, Agra, Kanpur, Fatehpur, Rajasthan, Punjab, and Gwalior. The local names of the cotton thread and woolen yarn are soot and aanga, respectively.
The different processes in carpet manufacture include picking and sorting of wool, carding, spinning, dyeing, weaving, trimming and washing. The tasks of picking and sorting of wool, and carding and spinning, are not much in vogue today. Some people still do this work in their own homes. A rough quality of yarn is supplied to the small manufacturers. The manufacturers are supplied with ready-made woolen yarn by different woolen mills also. Woolen yarn is dyed in different colours as required in the design of the carpet. Previously, wool was dyed by indigenous methods but nowadays it is done through mechanized dyeing plants as well as kilns also. A major part of carpet manufacture is weaving. Carpet weaving is carried out on looms by weavers in their own homes. In the Bhadohi carpet industry alone about 25 thousand rural artisans are employed. Most weavers have their own looms. Only a few do not own their looms and weave on looms owned by master-weavers or commission agents. Usually, commission agents or manufactures advance some money to weavers to install looms. Such weavers are contractually bound to weave the carpet for those, who have given them the money in advance. This contract is only socially sanctioned and there is no formal legal agreement. The loom on which the woolen carpet is woven is of a vertical type consisting of two rollers-one for rolling the woven carpets and the other for holding the warps. In Bhadohi, the lower roller is generally place in a trench, half a foot or so, in the ground. The length of the trench varies with the length of the roller which also depends on the size of the carpet. The weavers hand over the woven carpet to the manufacturer who gets it trimmed or clipped by the clippers.
The carpet industry of Bhadohi manufactures artistic floor carpets and rugs of fascinating designs, which are a big attraction in the foreign markets. The tradition of carpet manufacture in Bhadohi goes back to at least 400 years. “Ain-Akabari” (1600 AD) by a Abul Fazle is the oldest record in which reference appears to carpet weaving in the area. The hand-knotted carpets of Bhadohi constitute 95 percent of the total carpet export from India. Only about 10 percent of the total carpet produced in India is locally consumed. The export of Indian carpets has reached to its peak at Rs. 3674.86 crores in 2006-07 (U.P. share Rs.2829.64 crore.) but global slowdown and demand of traditional Persian carpet specially from Europe and US jolted the carpet industry. With some improvement in global economy the trade has seen rising trend in 2010-11 to tune of Rs. 2992 crore (U.P. Share 525.87 crore.) Industry has all hope that the value of export would not go below last year figure in the current year. In 2010 the carpet manufactured in bhadohi region has also received geographical indication (GI) tag.
Shailendra Kumar Singh
In 1946 the United Nations General Assembly passed one of its very earliest resolutions regarding freedom of information. It stated this :
Freedom of information is a fundamental human right and … the touchstone of all freedoms to which the United Nations is consecrated.
Considering that freedom of information is regarded as such an important human right, it might be a little surprising that it is not more clearly stated in the international human rights standards. The wording of Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is clear and unambiguous:
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.
Although freedom of expression was seen as benefiting both those who “imparted information” and those who “received” it, the idea that citizens were entitled to have access to information held by the institutions of government was not widely held at that time.
Governments and other institutions hold much information that affects the well-being of the individual as a member of society, even if it does not refer to them by name.
There are any numbers of types of information that governments hold that affect the individual. They could fall into any of the following categories:
- Social welfare
- Planned investment
In all these areas the individual citizen has rights and particular things to which they are entitled. If they do not have adequate information about what the government is doing in these areas, then they will not be able to exercise those rights fully.
“Government” does not only refer to the head of government and the Ministers. On a day-to-day basis it means a large number of institutions – and decision-making committees within those institutions – which make decisions and take actions that implement government policy or the law. And, while there is great public interest in what goes on in the legislature or the courts, these less glamorous institutions make extremely important decisions.
In Uttar Pradesh, the State Information Commission was constituted vide State Government’s notification no. 856/43-2-2005-15/2 (2)/2003 TC-4 dated 19.09.2005. After that Hon. Justice (Retd) M.A. Khan was appointed first State Chief Information Commissioner. He joined his office on 22nd March, 2006.
Training of officers is being organized in different departments in different towns. At the state level, Uttar Pradesh Academy of Administration and Management (UPAAM), has been acting as state implementing agency for “Right to Information”. Training for the ranks of SDM, BDO and below is urgently required. To train Panchayat Secretaries in more than 52000 panchayats is a challenge.
Most of the departments have provided proactive disclosures on their web sites.
Office of the State Information Commission, Uttar Pradesh has been made fully automated. Weekly cause list is available on their web site. Important decisions of all the State Information Commissioners including Chief State Information Commissioner Mr. Ranjeet Singh Pankaj may be found online. State Information Commission, Uttar Pradesh has also been hearing the cases through video conferencing.
The right to information forms the crucial underpinning to participatory democracy. It is essential to ensure accountability and good governance.
The greater the access of the citizens to information, the greater is the responsiveness of government to community needs. Alternatively, the greater the restrictions that are placed on access, the greater the feelings of ‘powerlessness’ and ‘alienation’.
Without information, people cannot adequately exercise their rights as citizens or make informed choices.
Rajesh Kumar Mehtani,
U.P.Housing & Development Board,
The designs depend for its effect on the variety of stitches and different grades of threads used to form the patterns which include, the lace like jali, the opaque fillings and the delicacy or boldness of outline and details. Tiny raised flowers done in what seem to be French knots are balanced by the flat stem stitch and large areas of open work to prevent either a crowded or too scattered appearance. The stitches employed are back-stitch, chain stitch, and hemstitch forming an open work pattern.
Individual floral motifs may embellish the entire garment or just one corner. Among the floral motifs embroidered, the jasmine, rose, flowering stems, lotus and the paisley motif are the most popular. Chikan work has a very light, gossamer – like quality. This makes it very suitable for the seemingly hot climate.
Some of the popular motifs are Kairi; Dhaniya Patti; Phanda; Dhum Patti; Ghas, Patti; Murri; Kangan; Joda Murri; Maharaki; Sadi-Maharaki; Daraz/ Katub; Pechani; Tanire; Gitti; Phanda; Keel; Kangira.
A Chikan suit is a regal treasure in any fashion connoisseur’s wardrobe. Really the great thing about this form of embroidery is that it never goes out of fashion and it suits women/ men of all ages. If you are going to invest in a few pairs of elegant wear, try adding chikan to your wardrobe. If you wear chikan you really are wearing a piece of history, as it is a form of embroidery that has been art part of Indiafor centuries.